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UEFI 2.4 Review, Part 15: Capsule on Disk
This article is the fifteenth in a series reviewing the changes in the UEFI 2.4 specification. This time we take a look at a new standard way for capsules to be delivered to the pre-OS environment: on disk.
Going back in history, capsules have been used for various things. Operating systems have tucked away their BSOD information in a capsule, so they could recover it on next boot, even if the debug information couldn't be displayed. But by far the most common usage is to tuck away a firmware update for the pre-OS to deal with on the next reboot.
There's one small problem with that: where does the firmware put the capsule? Well, in some cases, the underlying memory controller would guarantee that the memory contents would persist across certain types of reset. This would allow the firmware to pick up the capsule on the next reset, and mark its memory location as reserved so it would not be stomped on until the appropriate application or driver could get ahold of it. Others hid it away in System Management RAM (SMRAM) or even in the belly of an embedded controller.
In other systems, where the memory holding the capsule could not guarantee that the memory would be valid, some other solution was needed. In UEFI 2.4, there is now the option to store a file on the system partition of the boot disk, in the /EFI/UpdateCapsule directory and set a bit in the OsIndications EFI variable.
On the next boot, the UEFI firmware will detect that bit set and will search for any files within the boot device's system partition and try to load and validate them, in alphabetical order. Once they have been processed, they are deleted (if possible) and the system is reset.
But wait? How do I know what happened when the capsule was processed? Well, there is now a handy-dandy CapsuleNNNN EFI variable that is created to describe both what was processed and the resulting status. Possible results include success (of course), invalid capsule, device error, access denied, unsupported capsule type, no valid driver in the capsule, or there wasn't enough memory to process the capsule. This mechanism shouldn't be confused with Microsoft's own special ACPI table, the ESRT table (little public information available, but here's a hint) which reports the results of firmware updates.
So with UEFI 2.4, the operating system (and related system software) can pass large quantities of data back to the pre-OS for processing without worrying about the size. Much more flexible, and better yet, its a standard.
P.S. A lot of credit for the capsule updates in UEFI 2.4 goes to my Insyde colleague, Jeff Bobzin. He produced a public demonstration of these technologies with Terry Kirch of Emulex at the most recent IDF.